Geopolitik Energi

November 14, 2008

The US Strategic Petroleum Reserve

Filed under: Uncategorized — merdeka1978 @ 1:50 pm

5 August 2002
Source of maps and photos: TerraServer USGS.

Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve:


The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) is the nation’s first line of defense against an interruption in petroleum supplies. It is an emergency supply of crude oil stored in huge underground salt caverns along the coastline of the Gulf of Mexico.

Decisions to withdraw crude oil from the SPR during an energy emergency are made by the President under the authorities of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. In the event of an energy emergency, SPR oil would be distributed by competitive sale. Although used for emergency purposes only once to date (during Operation Desert Storm in 1991), the SPR’s formidable size (almost 600 million barrels) and the U.S. government’s stated policy to withdraw oil early in a potential supply emergency make the SPR a significant deterrent to oil import cutoffs and a key tool of foreign policy.

The need for a national oil storage reserve has been recognized for at least five decades.

Secretary of the Interior Harold Ickes advocated the stockpiling of emergency crude oil in 1944. President Truman’s Minerals Policy Commission proposed a strategic oil supply in 1952. President Eisenhower suggested an oil reserve after the 1956 Suez Crisis. The Cabinet Task Force on Oil Import Control recommended a similar reserve in 1970.

But few events so dramatically underscored the need for a strategic oil reserve as the 1973-74 oil embargo. The cutoff of oil flowing into the United States from many Arab nations sent economic shockwaves throughout the Nation. In the aftermath of the oil crises, the United States established the SPR.

President Ford set the SPR into motion when he signed the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) on December 22, 1975. The legislation declared it to be U.S. policy to establish a reserve of up to 1 billion barrels of petroleum.

The Gulf of Mexico was a logical choice for oil storage sites. More than 500 salt domes are concentrated along the coast. It is the location of many U.S. refineries and distribution points for tankers, barges and pipelines. In April 1977, the government acquired several existing salt caverns to serve as the first storage sites. Construction of the first surface facilities began in June 1977.

On July 21, 1977, the first oil – approximately 412,000 barrels of Saudi Arabian light crude – was delivered to the SPR. Fill of the Nation’s emergency oil reserve had begun.

Storage locations along the Gulf Coast were selected because they provide the most flexible means for connecting to the Nation’s commercial oil transport network. Strategic Reserve oil can be distributed through interstate pipelines to nearly half of the Nation’s oil refineries or loaded into ships or barges for transport to other refineries.

Strategic Petroleum Reserve caverns range in size from 6 to 30 million barrels in capacity; however, the typical cavern is 10 million barrels and cylindrical in shape having a diameter of 200 feet and a height of 2,000 feet. A typical cavern is large enough for Chicago’s Sears Tower to fit inside with 170 feet to spare. The Reserve has created over 50 of these huge underground caverns.

Current Status

Today, the SPR has the capacity to hold 700 million barrels. It is the largest emergency oil stockpile in the world. Together, the facilities and crude oil represent more than a $20 billion national investment.

Fill was suspended in FY 1995 to devote budget resources to refurbishing the SPR equipment and extending the life of the complex through at least the first quarter of the next century. In 1999 fill was resumed in a joint initiative between the Departments of Energy and the Interior to supply royalty oil from Federal offshore tracts to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve.

The Desert Storm Drawdown

Stockpiling crude oil in the SPR reduces the nation’s vulnerability to economic, national security, and foreign policy consequences of petroleum supply interruptions. The SPR proved its value in 1991 when a partial drawdown, coupled with a coordinated international supply response, dampened oil price hikes during the Persian Gulf War.

On January 16, 1991, coinciding with the international effort to counter the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait, President Bush ordered the first-ever emergency drawdown of the SPR. The Department of Energy immediately implemented a drawdown plan to sell 33.75 million barrels of crude oil, the United States’ portion agreed to by the International Energy Agency.

The drawdown proceeded on schedule and without major complications. Between the initial authorization and the final sale, however, world oil supplies and prices stabilized, and the United States reduced the sales amount to 17.3 million barrels which were sold to 13 companies.

The Desert Storm drawdown and the price stability that resulted in world markets showed the merits of the U.S. policy of announcing its intent to draw upon its emergency stockpile early and in large quantities should the U.S. oil supply be threatened.

Program Priorities

In managing the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program, the Office of Fossil Energy’s overriding objective is to maintain the readiness of the oil stockpile for emergency use at the President’s direction.

From 1993-2000, the Department of Energy’s top priority was to ensure the continued readiness of the Reserve through at least the year 2025 by conducting a major life-extension program. This included replacing or refurbishing pumps, piping and other key components at the SPR’s Gulf Coast sites. The program was completed in March 2000 on schedule and below original cost estimates.

the Strategic Petroleum Reserve

Bryan Mound, TX

28N 54′ 50″
95W 22′ 46″

USGS photos 23 Jan 1995

Big Hill, TX

29N 44′ 41″
94W 14′ 57″

USGS photos 22 Feb 1989

West Hackberry, LA

29N 59′ 45″
93W 24′ 23″

USGS photos 8 Feb 1998

Choctaw Bayou, LA

30N 19′ 05″
91W 18′ 39″

USGS photos 4 Feb 1998

December 25, 2007

FACTBOX-Why oil prices are near a record high

FACTBOX-Why oil prices are near a record high

Sun Jul 22, 2007 11:22PM EDT

(Reuters) – Real and threatened disruptions to crude oil supplies, constraints at refineries in consuming countries, resilient global fuel demand and a flow of investor money into oil and other commodities have pushed prices higher.


Investment flows from pension and hedge funds into commodities including oil have resumed in recent months after a hiatus earlier in the year due to concerns about how the global economy was moving.

Investors are also increasing bets that prices will rise.

Speculators in the New York Mercantile Exchange crude oil market boosted net long positions to a record high in the week to July 10, the Commodity Futures Trading Commission said.

Speculative trading in energy markets has surged in recent years as investors sought to beat returns in other markets such as equities and bonds


The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, source of more than a third of the world’s oil, is pumping less than in 2006 after agreeing to remove barrels from the market.

OPEC agreed to curb supply by 1.7 million bpd, or about 6 percent, last year in two steps. The second stage took effect from February 1.

Members have made about 1 million bpd of the pledged reduction, according to Reuters estimates. The exporter group is next scheduled to meet in September to decide production policy.

Consumer nations have called on OPEC to pump more crude to help ease prices, but the group’s oil ministers insist crude supplies are adequate.


While previous price spikes have been triggered by supply disruptions, demand from nations such as China and the United States is a main driver of the current rally.

Global demand growth has slowed after a surge in 2004, but it is still rising and higher prices have so far had a very limited effect on economic growth.

Analysts say the world is coping well with high nominal prices because adjusted for exchange rates and inflation, they are lower than during previous price spikes and some economies have become less energy intensive.


Supply of crude from Nigeria, the world’s eighth-largest oil exporter, has been cut since February 2006 because of militant attacks on the country’s oil industry.

Oil companies have detailed about 547,000 barrels per day of shut Nigerian production due to militant attacks and sabotage. The amount represents about 18 percent of the West African country’s output capacity of around 3 million bpd.


Adding to concern about tight supply of unrefined crude is a global shortage of refining capacity.

Refiners in the United States, the world’s top gas guzzler, have struggled with unexpected outages this year which drained inventories ahead of the summer, when motor fuel demand peaks.

U.S. gasoline inventories stand at 203.3 million barrels, 9.5 million below a year ago, according to government data. Demand is still growing, despite higher prices.

Refining capacity is already tight after years of underinvestment.

The U.S. oil industry took a battering in 2005’s Atlantic hurricane season. Some forecasters expect an active storm season this year.


Oil consumers are concerned about supply disruption from Iran, the world’s fourth-biggest exporter, which is locked in a dispute with the West over its nuclear program.

Western governments suspect Iran is using its civilian nuclear program as a cover to develop nuclear weapons. Iran denies this, saying it wants nuclear power to make electricity.


Iraq is struggling to get its oil industry back on its feet. Exports are stagnating at around 1.5 million bpd, compared with 1.7 million bpd or more under Saddam Hussein.

Decades of wars, sanctions and underinvestment have left Iraq struggling to pump its oil out of the ground and on to world markets. Production has failed to meet optimistic projections by oil ministry officials.

Iraq is also unable to ship crude regularly from its northern fields for export from the Turkish port of Ceyhan because of attacks on the pipeline to Turkey.

Oil falls ahead of OPEC meeting

Mon Sep 10, 2007 8:15AM EDT

LONDON (Reuters) – Oil slid on Monday ahead of an OPEC meeting in Vienna that is due to set production levels for peak winter demand.

Most members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries seem happy with OPEC’s current output, but Saudi Arabia, the world’s biggest exporter, has yet to signal its views.

“There is a little bit of talk that the Saudis may be influenced to push for 0.5 million bpd increase,” said Rob Laughlin, senior broker at MF Global.

U.S. light crude fell 72 cents to $75.98 a barrel by 8:10 a.m. EDT, after climbing 40 cents on Friday. London Brent crude shed 85 cents to $74.22 a barrel.

Saudi Oil Minister Ali al-Naimi has so far declined to make any comment.

He has not responded to a report by Washington-based consultancy PFC Energy saying Saudi Arabian sources signaled OPEC may need to boost output by up to 1 million barrels per day (bpd).

Any increase by OPEC would reverse some of the output cuts of 1.7 million bpd — roughly six percent of supplies — put in place since October 2006.

An increase might help to ease upward pressure on oil prices, which are close to a record high of $78.77 a barrel set on August1.

Industrialized consumer nations have argued that crude oil stocks will shrink rapidly by January next year if OPEC does not increase output.

“Near-record spot prices, steep inventory draws and economic uncertainty would all be good reasons for OPEC to reverse its October 2006 production cuts at its meeting on September 11,” said Lehman Brothers in a research note. “But few observers, us included, believe that it will do so.”

Worries over shrinking crude oil supplies are clouded by doubts over the economic health of top consumer, the United States.

There are concerns that turmoil in the world financial markets, triggered by problems in the U.S. mortgage sector, could tip the United States into recession and hit oil demand.

Payrolls in the United States shrank unexpectedly for the first time in four years last month, data showed on Friday, prompting concerns that credit market turmoil may become a drag on economic growth.

Saudi Arabia told its customers in Asia it would keep its crude oil supplies steady for October from September levels, industry sources in Japan and South Korea said on Monday.

More than half of Saudi Arabia’s crude heads to Asia.

The kingdom, key to any OPEC decision, pumped 8.65 million bpd of the cartel’s total August production of 30.37 million bpd, Reuters data shows. It also has the bulk of OPEC’s spare production capacity.

September 18, 2007


Filed under: Islam — merdeka1978 @ 4:44 pm
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Kepentingan Geostrategis UE di Eurasia

Leonard Hutabarat

Sejak secara bertahap menjadi pemain utama di kawasan Timur Tengah, Uni Eropa tampaknya tidak akan menempuh cara AS yang memberi dukungan bagi Israel. Sebaliknya, UE tetap menjaga hubungan dengan negara-negara Arab guna menjaga stabilitas perbatasan dan suplai minyaknya. UE memerlukan stabilitas kawasan minyak Eurasia untuk kebutuhan pasokan energinya.


September 10, 2007

Factbox: National oil companies work together

FACTBOX-National oil companies work together

Wed Jul 4, 2007 7:49AM EDT


July 4 (Reuters) – Through a series of multi-million dollar deals, national oil companies have gained greater global status by working together, rather than turning to international oil majors.

In some cases the cooperation has been primarily political and is linked to the trend of resource nationalism, whereby resource-holders seek to retain the greatest share of their natural resources wealth.

Other cases are pragmatic, as national oil companies discover they can serve each other’s interests without relying on the commercial firms that have traditionally been regarded as essential sources of technical expertise.

China’s national oil companies have been particularly aggressive in pursuing opportunities to work with peers across the world as the nation seeks to cater for its huge energy needs.

For related story on the rise of national oil companies, please click on [ID:nL12694897]

Below is a reverse chronological list of some of the deals and potential partnerships between national oil companies.


September 9, 2007


Filed under: Uncategorized — merdeka1978 @ 8:47 pm
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Oleh Ichsanuddin Noorsy

Usai sudah pertemuan 21 pemimpin negara Asia Pasifik yang digelar di Sidney 7-9 September. Sejak awal subyektivitas Perdana Menteri Australia John Howard yang “bersaudara secara ideologis” dengan sikap pandang pemimpin negeri Paman Sam sangat nampak dalam soal pengurangan efek gas rumah kaca sebagai wujud persoalan pemanasan global. Bahkan subyektivitas itu diikuti dengan gagas penggunaan teknologi ramah lingkungan. Untuk mengemas dengan baik dua masalah ini, Perdana Menteri John Howard menganjurkan agar dunia internasional dan anggota APEC mendukung pengaturan kebutuhan enerji. Dengan meyakinkan dia juga merekomendasikan agar para anggota APEC berkomitmen untuk melakukan menghemat enerji hingga 25% pada tahun 2030 beriring dengan upaya menurunkan efek gas rumah kaca. Namun efek rumah kaca sebagai perubahan iklim ini merupakan kewenangan Konvensi Rangka Kerja PBB untuk Perubahan Iklim (UNFCCC). Untuk kepentingan itulah AS dan RI menandatangani kerjasama penghutanan kembali (reforestry). Dalam kerjasama itu Pemerintah AS menggunakan uang pajak warga AS sebesar USD 20 juta yang “katanya” untuk mencegah kerusakan hutan Indonesia. Dan sudah diduga sebelumnya, kesepakatan AS dan Indonesia itu “dikuntit” Australia sehingga RI pun menandatangani kerjasama RI-Australia di bidang kehutanan. Kerjasama kehutanan ini termasuk upaya meningkatkan luas hutan di negara-negara APEC, sedikitnya 20 juta hektar dalam 13 tahun ke depan. Indonesia menyepakati isu lingkungan ini dengan alasan penyelamatan hutan dan terumbu karang.


September 8, 2007


Filed under: Uncategorized — merdeka1978 @ 9:49 pm
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Sabtu, 08 September 2007

“Pesta” ASEAN di Texas
Lidah Bush Terpeleset, APEC Disebutnya OPEC


Sydney, Jumat – Presiden AS George W Bush, Jumat (7/9), mengundang pemimpin ASEAN ke Crawford, Texas, tempat peristirahatan Bush. Di sana, Bush menjamu pemimpin ASEAN untuk merayakan 40 tahun berdirinya ASEAN. Kemungkinan besar pemimpin Myanmar Than Swe tidak dikehendaki kehadirannya.

Dua hari lalu Bush mengecam junta militer Myanmar sebagai pemimpin yang tidak bisa dimaafkan karena tindakan brutal terhadap warga Myanmar. Bush menyampaikan undangan itu kepada tujuh pemimpin ASEAN saat makan siang di Sydney.

Presiden Filipina Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo turut hadir pada acara makan siang itu. Perayaan di Texas itu dilakukan karena Bush tidak jadi hadir di Singapura, yang sempat direncanakan, untuk merayakan 40 tahun ASEAN sebagai pertanda kedekatan hubungan AS dengan ASEAN.

“Dia (Bush) mengundang kita ke Texas,” kata Arroyo. “Kita akan memenuhi undang itu demi kenyamanan ASEAN,” kata Arroyo, yang tidak menjelaskan apa yang ia maksudkan sebagai kenyamanan ASEAN itu.

Perayaan 40 tahun ASEAN pada 8 Agustus lalu dilakukan di Jakarta. Sepanjang kunjungan Bush ke Indonesia, ia selalu pulang hari dan tidak menginap. Anggota ASEAN yang juga menjadi anggota APEC adalah Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Filipina, Singapura, Thailand, dan Vietnam. Kamboja, Laos, dan Myanmar bukan anggota APEC.


July 6, 2007


Filed under: Uncategorized — merdeka1978 @ 2:53 pm
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Satu pertanyaan, mengapa umat Islam jazirah Arab tidak mendambakan sistem kilafat atau membentuk negara “Islam-Arabia” tetapi membentuk sistem kerajaan yang tidak demokratis?

Pertanyaan berikutnya adalah, apakah “Islam” tidak bermasalah dengan sistem kerajaan, demikian pula apakah bermasalah dengan cita-cita kebangsaan?

PADA “PR” tanggal 22 Juni 2007, penulis tertarik dengan artikel Bapak Irfan Anshory, mantan pengurus ormas Muhammadiyah yang mengupas bagian lintasan sejarah Indonesia berjudul “Memahami Piagam Jakarta”.

Di dalam sejarah dunia kita menyimak telah lahir banyak piagam. Menurut Dr. Husein Haikal di dalam bukunya Hayat-Muhammad maupun uraian Prof. K. Ali dalam bukunya A Study of Islamic History, piagam tertua dan merupakan dokumen tertulis yang autentik adalah “Piagam Madinah” yang dirumuskan secara gemilang oleh Nabi Muhammad saw.

Piagam-piagam lainnya yang berpengaruh besar terhadap peradaban sejarah dunia dapat disebutkan a.l. “Piagam Philadelphia” (AS tanggal 4 Juli 1776), Piagam Atlantik atau Kesepakatan Roosevelt-Churchill (tanggal 14-8-1941), dan Piagam San Fransisco (tanggal 26 Juni 1945) yang isinya, bermuatan nuansa sejalan sekitar kemerdekaan, demokrasi, persamaan, keseteraan, hak asasi manusia, antikolonialisme, perdamaian, keadilan, dan bekerja sama saling membantu untuk kesejahteraan umat manusia.

Pertanyaannya, mengapa piagam-piagam itu pantas disebutkan, karena secara geopolitik terutama “Piagam Madinah” yang pantas disebut Sunnah Nabi, keseluruhannya besar sekali pengaruhnya terhadap gerakan Kemerdekaan Bangsa Indonesia.


April 18, 2007


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Sumber: CIA


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April 16, 2007


Executive Intelligence Review

This article appears in the March 31, 2006 issue of Executive Intelligence Review.

Russia Embarks on Its
Global Nuclear Power Plans

by Marsha Freeman

In a series of national and international meetings in mid-March, the Russian government put forward its concrete plans to lead the global renaissance in the construction of new civilian nuclear power plants. Recent personnel changes in Rosatom, the Russian nuclear agency, are designed to position Russia as a major exporter of nuclear plants, which will help finance the construction up to 40 new domestic nuclear plants over the next 20 years. Russia’s current chairmanship of the Group of 8 industrial nations positions it to lead the nuclear revival internationally.

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