Geopolitik Energi

December 29, 2008

TEWASNYA BHUTTO: DEMI KEPENTINGAN GEOPOLITIK ENERGI?

Sekitar satu tahun lalu di Pakistan, 27 Desember 2007, hempasan peluru menembus leher Benazir Bhutto, dan kemudian disusul dengan serangan bom bunuh diri dari seorang yang tak dikenal (BBC). Dunia terhentak dengan tewasnya Bhutto, terutama Amerika Serikat (CNN). Pihak Gedung Putih menekankan walau Bhutto tewas, reformasi demokrasi di Pakistan harus tetap dijalankan, yakni pemilu Pakistan yang sebentar lagi tiba. Sepertinya menarik apa yang ditekankan oleh Amerika Serikat (AS) kepada Pakistan.

Bhutto, sebelum peristiwa serangan

Bhutto, sebelum peristiwa serangan

Sekedar untuk diketahui bersama, kembalinya Bhutto dari pengasingan ke Pakistan berkat sponsor AS. Bhutto kembali ke Pakistan pada 18 Oktober 2007, setelah bersepakat dengan Musharraf dimana semua tuduhan dan tuntutan atas korupsi terhadap dirinya dibatalkan. Sebelumnya, pada 27 Januari 2007, Bhutto sempat diundang datang ke Gedung Putih. Ini menandakan bahwa AS menekan Musharraf agar Pakistan terbuka lebar untuk Bhutto. Media AS ternama, Washington Post malah terang-terangan menyebutkan bahwa AS adalah broker (baca: makelar) kembalinya Bhutto ke Pakistan. “The U.S. came to understand that Bhutto was not a threat to stability but was instead the only possible way that we could guarantee stability and keep the presidency of Musharraf intact,” kata Mark Siegel. Siegel adalah pelobi untuk Bhutto di Washington dan banyak menyaksikan kesepakatan di balik diplomasi soal Bhutto. Jika pihak Washington menganggap bahwa Bhutto adalah bukan sebagai ancaman untuk stabilitas kawasan (baca: stabilitas kepentingan AS), lalu Musharraf dianggap apa dong?

Musharraf sejak tahun 2001 (peristiwa 9/11) dikenal yang melibatkan Pakistan sebagai sekutu dekat AS dalam perang melawan terorisme.  Musharraf pun dicaci maki di dalam negerinya sendiri; dituding sebagai boneka AS. Keikutsertaan Pakistan dalam memerangi terorisme sebenarnya adalah hal yang lucu.   Jauh hari sebelum peristiwa 9/11, Pakistan sebenarnya diduga terlibat dalam mensupport logistik hingga pelatihan anggota Taliban di masa Uni Sovyet menduduki Afghanistan. Tak heran, para pelaku peristiwa 9/11 pun banyak yang berasal dari Pakistan.Pelakunya adalah ISI (intelijen Pakistan) dan CIA. (Saya pikir BAKIN juga terlibat mendukung pada masa-masa itu; mengirim orang-orang Indonesia untuk dilatih di Pakistan). Targetnya sama: mengincar Afghanistan demi kepentingan energi  (penting klik KOMPAS). Inilah yang diketahui oleh Bhutto dan suaminya. Bhutto bahkan menuding Musharraf terlibat dalam rangkaian setting intelijen tersebut. Memang agak aneh, padahal Bhutto sendiri dapat kembali ke Pakistan dengan support AS pula. Tapi, itulah politik.

Tidak Ada Teman Abadi, Kecuali Demi Kepentingan Energi

Kedekatan Pakistan pasca 9/11 2001, membuat Pakistan mendapat kucuran dana luar biasa dari AS (whitehouse), diantaranya kucuran dana sebesar 1,5 Miliar USD untuk bidang militer tahun 2005-2009. Belum pula pada tahun 2004, Pakistan dianggap sebagai Major Non-NATO Ally oleh George W. Bush. Itu masih belum seberapa, karena masih banyak kucuran dana yang diterima oleh Pakistan.

Tapi, sesuai sifat alam, angin bisa berubah haluan. Begitu juga sikap politik Pakistan.  Musharraf yang melakukan kudeta militer tahun 1999, mulai dekat dekat dengan Iran dan China. Pakistan ternyata mulai membuka diri untuk proyek bersama pipa gas dari Iran.

rencana jalur pipa Iran-Pakistan-India

Pakistan membuka diri atas rencana  pembangunan pipa gas dari Iran. Pipa itu akan melewati Iran sepanjang  1100 Kilometer, 1000 Kilometer di wilayah Pakistan, dan 600 Kilometer di wilayah India.  Rencana pembangunan jalur pipa ini telah berjalan melalui rangkaian panjang perjanjian antara Iran, Pakistan, dan India sejak tahun 1993.  Pembangunan ini diprediksi memakan biaya sekita 7 Triliun Dollar AS.

Iran sebagai negara produsen gas terbesar di dunia mempunyai kepentingan murni bisnis dan geopolitik untuk pipa ini.  Sementara itu,  Pakistan dan India membutuhkan pasokan energi. Saat ini India mengalami kebangkitan ekonomi, dan tentunya membutuhkan pasokan energi yang tak sedikit.

Musharraf and Rice

Rencana besar ini ternyata membuat Gedung Putih tak suka. Pada tahun 2005-2006, Condolezza Rice sempat melakukan negoisasi dengan sekutu dekatnya (Pakistan dan India) dan menawarkan alternatif saat kunjungannya ke Asia, agar rencana pembangunan pipa gas tak berjalan.

Pembangunan pipa gas tersebut tentu membuat Washington khawatir.  Washington khawatir atas manfaat geopolitik ekonomi yang dipetik oleh Iran, dan khawatir pembangunan pipa tersebut akan berlanjut ke wilayah China. Seperti diketahui, China sebagai naga Asia sedang bangkit; pertumbuhan ekonomi yang melonjak tentu membutuhkan pasokan energi. Washington melihat jelas bahwa China juga berkepentingan dengan pembangunan pipa tersebut.

Yang jelas, tahun ini (2008) Washington sempat merasa berang dan kecolongan dengan lobby Musharraf dengan China. Apalagi jika lobby mengenai pembangunan pipa tersebut. Di dalam pengembangan proyek besar tersebut tentu sangat membutuhkan dana/invetasi besar; China tentu sangat berminat.

Walaupun Washington berang, rencana tetap berjalan. Tapi, kali ini dengan India menunda keinginannya; karena desakan Washington. Rencananya, pembangunan ini akan tetap dilanjutkan dan selesai pada tahun 2011-an.

Bhutto, Pakistan, AS, dan China

Melihat uraian di atas, Benazir Bhutto sepertinya tidak memperhitungkan kondisi “permainan” geopolitik kawasan yang sedang berkembang.  Kepentingan nasional Pakistan (jelas ada), Iran, dan China telah jelas masuk di Pakistan. Bhutto sepertinya menjebloskan dirinya sendiri dan didorong AS untuk masuk jurang kematian.

Apalagi kedatangan Bhutto dengan jelas disponsori oleh AS mengatasnamakan “demi demokrasi.” AS seperti terlihat dengan jelas memanfaatkan Bhutto untuk pengamanan kepentingan geopolitiknya. Banyak pihak pun tidak nyaman melihat kedatangan Bhutto di Pakistan. Sebut saja: di internal Pakistan sendiri, Iran, dan China. Akhirnya, permainan pun dimulai, dengan nyawa manusia menjadi tumbalnya. AS juga terlibat.

Kematian Bhutto memang menyedihkan. Tapi, lebih menyedihkan jika terdapat banyak kepentingan yang menyebabkan Bhutto tewas.*****

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May 14, 2007

SETTING INTELIJEN INTERNASIONAL SAAT INI

 power-elite-oil.jpg

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May 11, 2007

CONFIDENTIAL DOCUMENT ON IRAQ OIL LOBBYING

http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/oil/2006/0714confidential.htm

Confidential Document on Iraq Oil Lobbying

Commentary by James Paul
Global Policy Forum
July 14, 2006

The governments of the Coalition that overthrew Saddam Hussein announced that they acted because of weapons of mass destruction, terrorist threats, and a desire to install democracy in Iraq. They insisted that their actions had nothing whatsoever to do with oil. A confidential document (klik aja) has now come to light that helps us gain perspective on these official arguments. The document reveals that, in private, the Coalition governments were extremely interested in oil and that intense negotiations were going on, even while the initial fighting was still under way, to parcel out Iraq’s major oil fields. The main decisions were being taken in Washington. Key players – in the UK, Australia, France and elsewhere – saw Washington as the ultimate arbiter of Iraq’s oil resources.

(more…)

Chevron seen settling case on Iraq oil

http://www.iht.com/articles/2007/05/08/business/08chevron.php

Chevron seen settling case on Iraq oil

By Claudio Gatti and Jad Mouawad

 

Tuesday, May 8, 2007
Chevron, the second-largest American oil company, is preparing to acknowledge that it should have known kickbacks were being paid to Saddam Hussein on oil it bought from Iraq as part of a defunct United Nations program, according to investigators.

The admission is part of a settlement being negotiated with United States prosecutors and includes fines totaling $25 million to $30 million, according to the investigators, who declined to be identified because the settlement was not yet public.

The penalty, which is still being negotiated, would be the largest so far in the United States in connection with investigations of companies involved in the oil-for-food scandal.

(more…)

CHENEY ENERGY TASK FORCE DOCUMENTS FEATURE MAP OF IRAQI OILFIELDS

Cheney had Iraq in sights two years ago

(http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2003/07/22/wcheny22.xml)

By Simon English in New York

Last Updated: 12:26am BST 22/07/2003

 

 

Documents released under America’s Freedom of Information Act reveal that an energy task force led by vice-president Dick Cheney was examining Iraq’s oil assets two years before the latest war began.

The papers were obtained after a long battle with the White House by Judicial Watch, a conservative legal charity that opposes government secrecy and which is suing for the dealings of the task force to be made public.

 
Dick Cheney was examining Iraq’s oil assets two years before the latest war began

The emergence of the documents could fuel claims that America’s war in Iraq had as much to do with oil as national security. It also indicates that the Bush administration is beginning to lose the battle to keep its internal workings secret.

The 16 pages, dated March 2001, show maps of Iraq oil fields, pipelines, refineries and terminals. A document titled Foreign Suitors for Iraqi Oilfield Contracts is also included, listing which countries were keen to do business with Saddam’s regime.

Judicial Watch requested the papers two years ago as part of its investigation into links between the Bush administration and senior energy executives including Enron’s former chairman Ken Lay.

Mr Cheney has fought the release of the documents at every stage. A court ordered two weeks ago that at least some of the task force’s working papers should be made public.

 

Judicial Watch president Tom Fitton said: “People will draw their own conclusions about the documents, but that is what an open society is about. Given the delay in their release, the Bush administration clearly did not want them to come out.”

A spokesman for Mr Cheney did not return calls yesterday. The US Commerce Department said in a statement: “It is the responsibility of the Commerce Department to serve as a commercial liaison for US companies doing business around the world, including those that develop and utilise energy resources. The Energy Task Force evaluated regions of the world that are vital to global energy supply.”

Judicial Watch isn’t claiming that the documents are proof of any particular intent but say they should be open to public scrutiny.

Mr Fitton said: “Opponents of the war will point to the documents as evidence that the Bush administration was after Iraqi oil. Supporters will say the energy task force would have been remiss if it did not take Iraq’s oil into account.”

Nevertheless, the documents represent a surprising development. Until now it had been assumed that the US government was stonewalling over the energy task force papers because they would show the extent to which major party benefactors, including Enron, effectively wrote national energy policy.

Judicial Watch and other watchdogs are now curious what else may be revealed. A court ordered the government to comply with the Freedom of Information Act and give up these documents more than a year ago. Judicial Watch said it could not explain why the papers were suddenly released. A government spokesman declined to elaborate.

Maps of oil fields and pipelines in Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates and a list of energy development projects in those two countries are also included.

Mr Cheney argues that his consultations with the energy industry should be private so that all parties can speak freely. A US court recently described this invoking of executive privilege “extraordinary” and “drastic”.

================================================================

 

Jul 17, 2003 Contact: Press Office
202-646-5188

CHENEY ENERGY TASK FORCE DOCUMENTS FEATURE MAP OF IRAQI OILFIELDS

Commerce & State Department Reports to Task Force Detail Oilfield & Gas Projects, Contracts & Exploration

Saudi Arabian & UAE Oil Facilities Profiled As Well

(Washington, DC) Judicial Watch, the public interest group that investigates and prosecutes government corruption and abuse, said today that documents turned over by the Commerce Department, under court order as a result of Judicial Watch’s Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) lawsuit concerning the activities of the Cheney Energy Task Force, contain a map of Iraqi oilfields, pipelines, refineries and terminals, as well as 2 charts detailing Iraqi oil and gas projects, and “Foreign Suitors for Iraqi Oilfield Contracts.” The documents, which are dated March 2001, are available on the Internet at: http://www.JudicialWatch.org.

DOWNLOAD!!: cheney-energy-task-force-documents-feature-map-of-iraqi-oilfields.doc

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May 10, 2007

ABOUT IRAQ: OIL!

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ALL ABOUT OIL IN SOMALIA!

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Stratigraphy and Petroleum Prospects of Northern Somalia

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May 1, 2007

BUSH AND CHENEY, WHO AVOIDED THE VIETNAM WAR, ARE PREPARING FOR A NEW U.S. MILITARY PRESENCE IN SOUTHEAST ASIA: AFTER THE MIDDLE EAST DISASTER, GET READY FOR INDOCHINA WAR II

(http://www.inteldaily.com/?c=164&a=1274)

Fri, 02 Mar 2007 11:39:00 GMT
Wayne Madsen Report
While in Southeast Asia, this editor looked into rumors that the Bush/Cheney administration has initiated a major military move into Southeast Asia to secure for itself large oil deposits discovered in the waters of the Gulf of Thailand. The U.S. military push into the region is centered on the Cambodian coast, particularly around Sihanoukville.

While in Southeast Asia, this editor looked into rumors that the Bush/Cheney administration has initiated a major military move into Southeast Asia to secure for itself large oil deposits discovered in the waters of the Gulf of Thailand. The U.S. military push into the region is centered on the Cambodian coast, particularly around Sihanoukville.

April 27, 2007

HYDROCARBON POTENTIAL OF SOMALILAND

“The available well, seismic, and outcrop data show that the
potential for commercial accumulations of hydrocarbons in
Somaliland is good….”

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Hydrocarbon potential of Somaliland (download file PDF)

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